The purpose of this project was to develop a literature review and conceptual model describing the key factors in organizational and management systems that promote effective early childhood practice with an emphasis on the use of data for continuous quality improvement. The contractor reviewed the literature from multiple academic disciplines (e.g., industrial and organizational psychology, non-profit management, health care, education leadership, and business management). This literature review was used to develop a conceptual model identifying the key factors in management and organizational systems that are related to the effective use of data for improving program practice and implications for Head Start settings were examined. The contract also supported a small set of case studies of Head Start programs that are using data effectively to promote practice change and continuous improvement in their organizations. The information developed through these efforts was used as the basis for a set of resources within a resource guide to help Head Start programs improve their use of data, their management and organizational systems more broadly.