Within 18 months after the close of a Child Protective Services investigation, 22.3% of a nationally representative sample were placed out of home, according to this report, which summarizes permanency outcomes for children at Wave 2 of NSCAW II. NSCAW II is a longitudinal study intended to answer a range of fundamental questions about the functioning, service needs, and service use of children who come in contact with the child welfare system. The study examines the well-being of children involved with child welfare agencies; captures information about the investigation of abuse or neglect that brought the child into the study; collects information about the child’s family; provides information about child welfare interventions and other services; and describes key characteristics of child development. Wave 2 is a follow-up of children and families approximately 18 months after the close of the NSCAW II index investigation. The study children were approximately 2 months to 17.5 years old at baseline, and ranged from 16 months to 19 years old at Wave 2. Data collection for the second wave of the study began in October 2009 and was completed in January 2011. Permanency-related outcomes are presented, broken down by child age, baseline setting, developmental needs, and risk factors associated with the family of origin.