What is known about urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children and families’ engagement with government services? This literature review summarizes what is known about the status of urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children and families including their history of engagement with government services and the potential impact historical policies have had on current government service use. It also explores urban AI/AN families’ cultural engagement and ways in which cultural identification might pose barriers or facilitate access to services provided by ACF. In addition, existing literature is examined for information about how the context in which these families live might facilitate or impede access to services. Finally, the review incorporates what is known about the current level of urban AI/AN need for and utilization of ACF-funded services.