FACT: Human trafficking does not require movement or border crossing. If someone is forced to work or engage in commercial sex against their will, it is trafficking.
FACT: While some traffickers physically hold the people they exploit, it is more common for them to use psychological means of control. Fear, trauma, drug addiction, threats against families, and a lack of options due to poverty and homelessness can all prevent someone from leaving. Some individuals who experience trafficking may also be manipulated or believe they are in love with their trafficker, which can make them resistant to seeking help.
Some traffickers use more subtle methods of trapping and controlling people, such as:
FACT: Individuals who experience trafficking may not readily seek help due to a number of factors, including shame, self-blame, fear, or even specific instructions from their traffickers regarding how to behave when interacting with others. They do not always self-identify and may not realize that they have rights.
OTIP encourages social services and law enforcement to take time to look beneath the surface and build trust with individuals who may be experiencing trafficking before making judgments about their situation.
FACT: Initial consent to commercial sex or labor before the trafficker used force, fraud, or coercion is not relevant.
FACT: Human smuggling and human trafficking are distinct crimes under federal law.
Human smuggling refers to an illegal border crossing, while human trafficking involves commercial sex acts or labor/services that are induced through force, fraud, or coercion, regardless of whether or not transportation occurs.
FACT: Human trafficking also includes labor trafficking, which involves children and adults compelled to perform labor or services by force, fraud, or coercion.
FACT: Anyone can experience human trafficking, including men. Traffickers prey on the vulnerable, often with promises of a better life. Risk factors for trafficking include: prior history of abuse or sexual violence, generational trauma, poverty, unemployment, and unstable living situations, or homelessness.